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Black Hole

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Background

Black Holes are a place in space where gravity pulls so much that even light can not get out. The gravity is so strong because matter has been squeezed into a tiny space. This can happen when a star is dying.

Because no light can get out, people can't see black holes. They are invisible. Space telescopes with special tools can help find black holes. The special tools can see how stars that are very close to black holes act differently than other stars.

Black holes can be big or small. Scientists think the smallest black holes are as small as just one atom. These black holes are very tiny but have the mass of a large mountain. Mass is the amount of matter, or "stuff," in an object.

Another kind of black hole is called "stellar." Its mass can be up to 20 times more than the mass of the sun. There may be many, many stellar mass black holes in Earth's galaxy. Earth's galaxy is called the Milky Way.

The largest black holes are called "supermassive." These black holes have masses that are more than 1 million suns together. Scientists have found proof that every large galaxy contains a supermassive black hole at its center. The supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way galaxy is called Sagittarius A. It has a mass equal to about 4 million suns and would fit inside a very large ball that could hold a few million Earths.

Scientists think the smallest black holes formed when the universe began.

Stellar black holes are made when the center of a very big star falls in upon itself, or collapses. When this happens, it causes a supernova. A supernova is an exploding star that blasts part of the star into space.

Scientists think supermassive black holes were made at the same time as the galaxy they are in.

A black hole can not be seen because strong gravity pulls all of the light into the middle of the black hole. But scientists can see how the strong gravity affects the stars and gas around the black hole. Scientists can study stars to find out if they are flying around, or orbiting, a black hole.

When a black hole and a star are close together, high-energy light is made. This kind of light can not be seen with human eyes. Scientists use satellites and telescopes in space to see the high-energy light.

Black Hole Creation

Black Hole Creation is a subset of Gravity Manipulation that allows the user to generate black holes, regions of space-time with gravity so intense that even light cannot escape them. True black holes are virtually inescapable unless one can move faster-than-light and ignore conventional durability because the incredible tidal forces within the black hole approach infinity in all directions, making it virtually impossible to survive through normal means unless the target is an entire dimensional tier above the user.

It should be noted that characters who have survived black holes but can otherwise be harmed by other, conventional attacks will not be given infinite durability as a black hole is Durability Negation. They will instead be stated to simply have a resistance to black holes.

It should also be noted that, even if the projectile resembles a black hole and shares the same basic function, it does not automatically qualify to be a real black hole. For further information, please refer to the section below.

Abilities/Resistances Granted

The following is the abilities granted from creating a black hole and the resistances granted from being able to run from or survive within a black hole.

  • Durability Negation: Black Holes methods of breaking down objects is absorbing their matter and information and breaking them down.

Black Hole Feats in Fiction

Proving the Legitimacy of Black Holes

Often in fiction, characters will come across something they claim to be a black hole. While it may resemble one, not all verses properly treat black holes as they should. In order to ensure that something is a legitimate black hole, it should meet some of the following requirements to determine such:

  • The statement comes from a reliable source.
  • It should have a referenced singularity in its center.
  • Light should be bent outside of just the event horizon.
  • Its gravitational pull should be proportionally realistic to the black hole.
  • Aspects such as spaghettification should be referenced when describing the crossovers.
  • It would help to come from a source such as a dying star, something a black hole originates from.

Attack Potency for Creating Black Holes

Black holes have many special and amazing properties, but aside from the parts that can not be quantified in a number, which Attack Potency would one get for creating a black hole?

In general creating a black hole is about equal to creating any other celestial bodies. Usually creating a planet is seen as planet level and creating a star is seen as star level etcetera

So how do black holes rank? The answer lies in their mass. Usually stellar black holes have masses ranging from about 5 to several tens of solar masses and can easily be assumed to be at least star level, if not large star level. But some characters also have the ability to create very small black holes and some black holes in fiction may even be extremely large. So how do we rank them?

The good thing is that there is an easy formula that lets us approximate the mass of black holes based on the radius of the event horizon. It is:

where:

rs is the Schwarzschild radius (radius of the event horizon);
G is the gravitational constant;
M is the mass of the object;
c is the speed of light in vacuum.

(From Wikipedia)

So if we know the size we can just set in all values and can easily solve to M.

To roughly estimate the Attack Potency level one can then compare its mass to either that of the earth or the sun, whichever is closer to its mass. If it's x times the mass of the object it is compared to we estimate that it's creation would equal about x times the energy needed to destroy said object, i.e. either x-times baseline planet level for earth or x-times baseline star level for the sun.

A more comfortable way may be calculators for the mass and size of a black hole such as this one or this one.

Note: Destroying a black hole is generally unquantifiable because of the unknowns of how you'd properly destroy one and the kind of energy actually needed for it. However, if there is an assigned output value for the black hole's power, you can scale the character off the AP of the black hole. The calculation process above details how we treat creating black holes.

Regarding Durability From Black Hole Feats

Black holes are generally treated as Durability Negation rather than giving outright durability to anyone. The reason is because of how spaghettification works. As you get closer to a black hole, the gravity intensifies and begins to disproportionately affect your body. The stronger tidal waves begin to distort your body the closer that you get to a singularity. For a further explanation, please read the quote below.

"For the astronaut, there is no turning back. Once inside the event horizon, the astronaut, along with any signals from his radio transmitter, will remain hidden forever from the universe outside. He will, however, not have a long time (from his perspective) to feel sorry for himself as he approaches the black hole. Suppose he is falling feet first. The force of gravity that the singularity exerts on his feet is greater than on his head, so he will be stretched slightly. Because the singularity is a point, the left side of his body will be pulled slightly toward the right, and the right slightly toward the left, bringing each side closer to the singularity. The astronaut will therefore be slightly squeezed in one direction and stretched in the other. Some scientists like to call this process of stretching and narrowing spaghettification. The point at which the astronaut becomes so stretched that he perishes depends on the size of the black hole. For black holes with masses billions of times the mass of the Sun, such as those found at the centers of galaxies, the spaghettification becomes significant only after the astronaut passes through the event horizon. For black holes with masses of a few solar masses, the astronaut will be stretched and ripped apart even before he reaches the event horizon." - OpenStax

Escaping A Black Hole

While surviving a black hole isn't exactly quantifiable, escaping it can be a decent feat. Firstly, black holes pull in many things due to their intense gravitational poll, even light itself. In order to escape a black hole, you would need to at least be moving at faster than light speeds.

"The challenge here is that this scenario would conflict with a foundational concept of present-day physics, the principle of locality, which states that information cannot move from one place to another superluminally—that is, faster than the speed of light. But according to our definition of black holes, the only way to escape one is to travel faster than light, so if information does escape, it must be doing so superluminally, in conflict with locality." - Scientific American

Additionally, this would require you to have the Lifting Strength to overcome its gravitational force in order to escape. Therefore, escaping a black hole also doubles as a Lifting Strength feat that varies depending on the scale of the black hole.

Unquantifiable Aspects of Black Holes

There appears to be confusion on what parts of a black hole can be used for statistics and indexing. In order to clear up confusion, the following aren't feats that should be used for anything notable:

  • Grabbing/Moving a Black Hole: This is very simply impossible given how black holes work. The event horizon of a black hole is intangible, so you cannot interact with it conventionally. While you could hypothetically grab the singularity, the bizarre nature and sheer impossibility of such means it wouldn't give anything. At most, this would give Non-Standard Interaction.
    • Throwing objects into the black hole to move it is also too bizarre of a feat to really know how it would apply over to Lifting Strength. While moving a black hole might be possible, the method you would actually do so is very unknown. The two listed methods here most definitely wouldn't count toward that idea.
  • Surviving a Black Hole: The section above already covers this, but this is re-emphasizing for the matter of importance on a topic.
  • Anything regarding faster than light Black Holes: If a black hole were to be faster than light, that would break the current understanding and logic of how black holes are supposed to even work. We can conclude that such wouldn't be a proper black hole, so it wouldn't be viable for any feats, even the aforementioned methods of calculating Attack Potency, Speed, and Lifting Strength.
  • Surviving the collapse of a black hole from Hawking Radiation: Things in a black hole's grasp are hit by the negative energy of other objects rather than the actual energy when they are in the event horizon. While the character could withstand negative energy for a resistance feat, it would be unquantifiable to use for a durability feat period.

Users

  • Galaxy Man & Saturn (Mega Man): Both Robot Masters main unique ability is creating black holes.
  • Black Element Users in Chrono Cross: Black Element users have an element spell called "Black Hole".
  • Haiji (Hungry Joker): After evolving, Haiji's gravity powers allow him to make gravity so dense it creates a black hole.